The “heart” of our young country is its capital, ancient and at the same time young Kiev. And Cherkasy region we can trustfully consider the soul of Ukraine. The very this region was the motherland of Cossack movement, the hetman capital Chigirin is situated here.
Cherkasy region gave birth to the prominent people – the first Ukraine’s hetman Bogdan Khmelnitskiy, heroes of National Liberation War Peter Doroshenko and Ivan Vygovskiy, Gaidamak movement leaders Zaliznyak and Gonta, the world-known genius Taras Shevchenko, the nation’s prophet, without which we can’t realize our purpose on the Earth.
The region with 1,5 mn population is situated in the center of Ukraine and can be trustfully called its visit card, because it comprises something from every Ukraine’s region.
The very region’s name is closely connected with its history – long ago all Ukrainians were called cherkasy.
Cherkasy region is famous not only for its historical past, but also our present times, first of all due to the well-developed agrarian-industrial complex, where about 1/3 of the gross national domestic product is produced. For the intensive development of agriculture in the region is created the chemical, processing and food processing industries, modern machinery. This assists the comfortable investment climate, the development of business partnership.
Cherkasy region was founded on the 7 of January 1954 and is one of the youngest Ukraine’s regions. It is situated in the center of Ukraine, its territory is 20,9 sq.km, that makes 3,5% of the total area. It borders with the following regions: Kiev region in the north-west, Vinnitsa region in the west, Poltava region in the north , Dnipropetrovsk region in the east, and Kirovograd on south.
According to the administrative-territory division the region consists of 20 districts, 6 towns of regional and 10 towns of district subordination, 15 settlements 826 villages. The regional center is Cherkasy.
Cherkasy region has a glorious past, it has a lot of unique monuments of history and culture. On the territory of the region it was found more than100 settlements of Tripil culture about 100 villages and burial graves of Scithian time. Cherkasy area was a part of the East-Slav territory established on the beginning of A.D, and during the time of Kievan Rus was the southern part of Kiev principality.
NATURE AND ENVIRONMENT
The region is situated in the forest-steppe physical-geographic zone. The area is hilly plain, the soil is mainly black. The climate is temporally continental, with soft winters and warm summers. The average temperature in summer is +20˚C and in winter -5˚C.
Due to the climate conditions the region has various vegetation, is famous for its beautiful forests and different fauna. The largest in the forest-steppe zone Kaniv biogeographical reserve is located here (its area is 2028 ha), also the world-known dendrologic park “ Sofievka” is the pearl of gardening art, in 1996 it celebrated the 200 anniversary from the date of foundation.
There are 1037 rivers in the region, the largest is the Dnieper, the main water way of Ukraine (the length on the territory of Cherkasy region is 150 km); Gigskiy Tikich (161); Tyasmin (133); Ross (101). Cherkasy region has more than 2,3 thousands lakes and reservoirs. The length of Kremenchug reservoir is 130 km.
Cherkasy region has a large stock of decorative and building stone. The most famous deposits of granite are Starobabanske and Tanske, the production of which is widely exported.
On the region’s territory is located unique by the size, quality and spheres of usage, the largest in Ukraine Cherkasy deposit of bentonite clay, that is the important part of export-import operations in the world market. Cherkasy region has the large stock of the secondary kaolin, brown coal, peat, bauxite. The Boltysk deposit of oil-shales is situated on the border of Cherkasy region and Kirovograd. The left bank part of the region has the store of mineral waters, like “Mirgorodska”, prospected and exploited the Zvenigorodka deposit of radon water.
The population of Cherkasy region is 1,387 million people (almost 2,9% of Ukrainian population).The density of population is 67 persons per 1 sq.km. The urban population is 753 thousand people (54%), rural – 649 thousand people (46%).
The largest town is regional center Cherkasy, it has 307,8 thousand people.
Nationalities. The representatives of 85 nationalities dwell on the territory of Cherkasy region. Ukrainians make up 90,5% of the population. The most numerous national minority are Russians, then Jews, Poles, Tartars, Armenians, Bulgarians.
The active population. There are 808,8 thousand persons of active population. About 580 thousand people are engaged in economic activity.
EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
Nowadays in the region function 706 pre-school institutions, where 34 thousand people are brought up. There are 709 secondary schools, where study 187,8 thousand children. For satisfying the children’s needs, development of their creative abilities function 59 out of school and 13 institutions of new type, 12 specialized schools, Small Academy of Sciences, Small Academy of Arts. In 27 vocational schools, including 15 common, 2 – higher, 10 – gymnasiums study 10,5 thousand pupils by 116 professions.
50,8 thousand students (320 persons per 10 thousand of population) study in 28 higher institutions of I-IV level of accreditation. 31,5 thousand students (198 persons per 10 thousand of population) study in 7 higher institutions of III-IV level of accreditation.
In 2002 scientific researches were done by 33 scientific organizations of the region, among them 13 independent research organizations, 4 project-constuction technological, 3 project-research organizations, 9 scientific research and constuction branches at the industrial enterprises.
There are 932 religious organizations of 48 confessions, persuasions, directions in Cherkasy region. They consist of 7 regional religious departments, 4 cloisters, 4 spiritual missions, 1 brotherhood, 1 biblical institute (tuition by correspondence), 913 religious societies, among which 582 are orthodox, 317 – protestant, 33 – others.
Religious societies have Sunday schools. About 600 priests work in religious societies.
Ukrainian Orthodox Church is the most numerous in the region, under its jurisdiction there are 443 religious societies.
From the beginning of Ukraine’s independence by the expense of citizens’ contribution, active help of local authorities 162 religious institutions are built and 55 are in the process of construction.
In the region there is a wide variety of cultural institutions. That is regional musical-dramatic theatre of T.Shevchenko, regional puppet theatre, regional philharmonic society, Kaniv cultural school, Uman musical school of P. Demutskiy, Cherkasy musical cultural school of S.Gulak-Artemovskiy, 40 schools of esthetic upbringing, 738 houses of culture and clubs, 766 libraries, 2 national and 5 state historical-cultural nature reserves, among which function 17 museums, 14 museums of municipal ownership, 288 museums and museum rooms on the society basis.
Cherkasy region is and was the historical-cultural center of Ukraine. It became the heir of spiritual heritage of people’s genius T.G.Shevchenko, who was born in picturesque village Moryntsi, Zvenigorodskiy region and was buried on Chernecha Mountain in Kaniv. Shevchenko’s land is famous for significant historic events, outstanding names. The very this land gave birth to Cossacks and democratic republic Zaporozhska Sich, here was the great National Liberation War of Ukrainian people, led by B.Khmelnitskiy.
Cherkasy region contributed to the world culture such great writers, artists, scientists as I.Nechuy-Levitskiy, M.Dry-Khmara, T.Osmachka, M.Maximovich, A.Krimskiy, P.Yurkevich, V.Avramenko, I.Padalka, and many others.
Unique nature of the land, folk traditions gave creative impulse to O.Pushkin, P.Chaikovskiy, M.Lysenko, M.Vovchok, M.Gogol, I.Kotlyarevskiy, G.Skovoroda, A.Mitskevich.
The total area of dwelling fund is 33800 thousand sq.km. The average material security of one person is 24,2 sq.m. from the total area.
Generally in the region are built 118,6 thousand sq.m. of dwelling houses (79 thousand sq.m. is individual construction).
The participation of all objects of political process in following the Constitutional laws, social society agreement, protection of person’s rights is going on in Ukraine. 80 regional organizations, political parties, 461 social organizations and charity fund are registered and work in the region.
45 interbranch organizations make up Cherkasy regional organization of trade unions.
Mass media is represented by 32 printed publications. The most numerous group of publications – 60 (26%) – belong to the commercial structures.
The founders of mass media are private persons. This kind of editions are 46, or 20%. A great number of editions (12) belongs to the political parties and social organizations. Local authorities issue 26 newspapers, specific weight of which is 14%.
The new event in the region’s information space is the appearance of periodical publications, the founders of which are different religious confessions. Nowadays 13 are officially registered. Advertising editions constitute 23% of regional press.
Three national broadcasting companies (UT-1, UT-2, “Inter”) cover 20 districts of the region. The programs of STB, TET, ICTV channels broadcast from Cherkasy and Uman. TV studio “Ross”, the founder of which is State TV Radio company, broadcasts on 2 channels.
47 electronic TV radio companies, their broadcasting time covers 1074 hours per week, work in the informational space of the region.
Electronic mass media of all kinds broadcast primarily in state language.
The region is industrial-agricultural. The production of commodities and services makes up 42%.
The structure of industrial manufacture of the region is characterized by the following indexes:
▪ the mining industry makes up 2,2% of the total regional volume. It includes 2 branches: extraction of power materials (peat) and extraction of non-power materials (non-metalic raw material for industry and construction);
▪ the manufacturing industry – 86,9% of the total regional volume;
the production and distribution of electric power, gas, heat, water is 10,9% of the total regional volume.
Food processing (39,9%) and chemical (26,9%) industries prevail in the industrial manufacturing. The construction of machines and metal manufacturing make up 8%, light industry – 1,5%.
There are more than 300 industrial enterprises in Cherkasy region, that produce power energy, mineral fertilizers, ammonia, chemical fibers, automatic and calculative equipment, technological equipment for processing branches, machinery and equipment for stock-breeding and fodder, consumer goods. In the food processing industry the most developed are the following branches: sugar, meat processing, dairy, flour, liqueur-vodka, canning.
TRANSPORT AND COMMUNICATION
Railway and autotransport
The territory of Cherkasy region is crossed by a great number of railways and automobile highways. The railroads connect the south and north of Ukraine, the basic highways – east and west of the country.
The railway transportation in the region is provided by the enterprises and organizations of Shevchenko railway department. The main office is located on the cross-roads of 2 directions: Moscow – Odessa, and Donbas – the Carpathians. The length of state, regional and local roads is 6,2 thousand km.
The Cherkasy air port can accept the planes with cargo-carrying capacity up to 40 tones, it can be regularly used by the local air lines of Ukraine. The length of the landing ground is 2,5 km.
In the region there is Cherkasy river port and 3 piers in Kaniv, Irkliev, Adamivka. Different cargoes are delivered along the Dnieper.
Telephone and telegraph communication in the region is provided by the OJSC
“Ukrtelecom” and JV “Utel”. Installation of telephones is based on the systematic change of existing equipment for modern digital systems, including transmissions of electronic data.
The density of the urban telephone communication is 29,4 telephone numbers per 100 inhabitants, rural – 9,5 telephone numbers per 100 inhabitants.
Several providers work in the region, offering the services of Internet. Mobile communication is very popular nowadays.
There is an advanced construction complex in the territory of the region. The construction is performed by 160 enterprises of different kind of ownership.
The industrial enterprises of the building industry have sufficient capacities providing the construction complex with wall materials, modular concrete and ferro-concrete designs and details, metal constructions, joiner’s products, asphalt, nonmetallic and other materials.
There are more than 5,3 thousand small enterprises and 34 thousand of businessmen – private persons in the region.
Entrepreneurs can get help from 6 business centers, business training center, 3 leasing centers, 2 regional funds of business support, 46 banks and 591 departments, 34 credit unions, 4 stock exchanges and 6 departments, about 60 information-consultative and juridical institutions, 4 insurance companies and 40 branches, 32 auditing companies, 3 investment companies and their 6 branches, center of scientific-technical and economic information.
FOREIGN ECONOMIC RELATIONS
The external economic turn over of the commodities and services was 96,4 million USD, including export – 58,9 million USD, import – 37,5 million USD. In the external economic turn over the services make up 1,5%.
Top articles of the export are mineral fertilizers (30,3%), yarn of chemical fibers (16,6%), organic chemical compounds (14,1%), clothes (5,9%), machinery and equipment (3,4%).
Top import articles are the products of chemical and associated industries (25,4%), paper and things made of paper (22,9% of the total import), machinery and equipment (18,2%), textile products (9,8%), tobacco products (8,1%).
Repairing services, cargo transportation services and tourism services prevail among the services presented by the region. Import cornerstone was set by financial, transportation services, royalty.
Banking system of Cherkasy region constitute the department of National Bank of Ukraine in Cherkasy region, Cherkasy Central branch of Prominvestbank, Cherkasy regional branch of PJSC “The State Savings Bank of Ukraine ”, Cherkasy regional office APPB “Aval”, Cherkasy regional branch ACB “Ukrsotsbank”, Cherkasy main regional department of ‘‘Privatbank’’, branch of ‘‘Ukreximbank’’ in Cherkasy, Cherkasy and Dnipropetrovsk branch of JSC “Ukrinbank” Cherkasy regional branch of “Energobank”, AKB “The National Credit”, Uman branch of “Kiev Rus”, Cherkasy regional branches of AKIB “Ukrsibbank”, JSC “Credit Bank” (Ukraine), OJSC ”Ukrgasbank”, AKB “Legbank”, AB “Kiev Rus”, AB “Brockbusinessbank”, OJSC “Megabank”, OJSC “International Commercial Bank”, OJSC “Promeconombank”.
Generally the regional banking system has 44 balance establishments and 593 branches. The regional bank establishments practice in giving credits to the real economic sector. From the total amount of credits invested in the region’s economy, about 40% are given for the industrial sector, trade, small and middle business – 40%,agrarian and industrial complex about 20%.
13 bank institutions work with plastic cards. The stability of the currency market is provided in the region. The exchange transactions 34 points and 181 operational cash departments of the authorized banks.
Cherkasy region is proud of its sport history. Among famous sportsmen are A.Himich (canoe), O.Motuzenko (kayak), O.Krikun (light athletics).
6 sportsmen presented our region in Olympic Games in Sidney. Silver medals got O.Fedenko (cycle racing), V.Pershkura (sport gymnastics). 2 silver medals received A.Skachkov (light athletics, invalid sport) in Paraolympic Games.
19 regional sportsmen were included to the candidates, who will take part in future Olympic Games in Athens (Greece) in 2004. Cherkasy sportsmen are among winners of championships, the cup tournament in fencing, European and world championships in sambo, the cup of Europe in kickboxing, sport gymnastics, international competitions in academic fencing, championship in fire-applied sport.
Volleyball team “AZOT” took the 4 place in the cup tournament among European teams. Today 6 teams take part in Ukraine’s championships, representing Cherkasy region.
The system of health protection in the region includes 259 medical-prophylactic institutions of all kinds, where 4467 doctors and 12765 nurses work.
The center of specialized medical help to the region’s population is the central hospital – multi profile medical-prophylactic institution, where high-qualified specialists work.
For a long period of time the hospital successfully cooperates with Oxford childish clinic within the program “The help to children with inherent jaw-face defects”.
On the basis of the regional oncology clinic was created the open oncology-mamological center for children, where together with the corresponding center in Germany leukemia is researched.
In the framework of the USA project the problems of leukemia among the region’s adult population are researched.
The regional oncology clinic cooperates with Ukrainian NSRI named after M.D.Strazheska, the cooperation with French colleagues is in the process of development, the educational-diagnostic center dealing with the questions of echocardiology is organized together with the European program of partnership TACIS.
In Cherkasy region there are 688 agricultural firms – privatized structures and 1011 farms. The total area of agricultural fields is 1,5 mn ha or 3,5% in Ukraine, including the arable land – 1,3 mn ha.
In the structure of agricultural industry the plant-growing comprises 62%, stock-breeding – 38%. The number of heads in the stock-breeding complex is the following: cattle – 388,5 thousand heads, pigs – 610,5 thousand heads, poultry – 6,6 mn heads.
The gross national product in the agriculture is 2,9 mld grivnas, that makes 5% of the total Ukraine’s agricultural production, or 2055 grivnas per one person.
Cherkasy region is diversed from another regions by its corn production (1947 thousand tons in 2002), sugar beet – 1005 thousand tons, sunflower – 85,5 thousand tons, vegetables and potato (281 and 710 thousand tons correspondingly) and diary-meat production (meat – 127 thousand tons, milk – 560 thousand tons).
Cherkasy region totally provides itself with the main agricultural products. Two scientific-research institutes provide the scientific background for the successful development of agriculture.
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